It is important to keep your diabetes record and do everything to regulate your blood glucose levels.

However, it is equally important to ensure that you do not end up dealing with two problems – hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia.

Hypoglycemia (low blood glucose) +                         is actually an insulin reaction and can happen when you are on insulin or taking oral medications.

Hyperglycemia refers to high blood glucose (-)       which can affect you when you have diabetes, either non-insulin-dependent or insulin-dependent.

To prevent these issues, you need to know the symptoms of these two conditions.

Symptoms of Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia
Both high and low blood sugar levels will cause certain symptoms.

Just by developing a better understanding of those symptoms, you can tell if your blood sugar levels are really low or on the higher side.

1. Symptoms of Hyperglycemia +

It is important to seek medical attention to help treat hyperglycemia or else it may lead to serious complications, including Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic Nonketotic Syndrome (HHNS) and diabetic ketoacidosis. Both conditions may cause certain symptoms, such as the following:

Early Symptoms;
Excessive thirst
Concentration problem
Severe headaches
Frequent urination
Blurred vision
Weight loss
Chronic fatigue
Blood sugar higher than 180 mg/dL
Vision problems

Advanced Symptoms:                                             Skin and vaginal infections
Slow-healing of wounds and cuts
Nerve damage
Loss of hair on the lower extremities
Damage to your blood vessels, eyes, or kidneys
Stomach problems
Intestinal issues

When to See a Doctor
You should seek immediate medical assistance if:
▪ You feel sick and find it impossible to keep fluids and food down.
▪ Your blood sugar levels stay higher than 240 mg/dL and you experience symptoms of ketoacidosis.

Call your doctor and make an appointment if:

▪ You have vomiting or diarrhea.
▪ Your blood glucose levels are above 240 mg/dL even after taking diabetes medication.
▪ You have a fever that does not go away after 24 hours.

2. Symptoms of Hypoglycemia –
A change in your energy level is among the most common symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia. In hypoglycemia, your blood glucose levels are too low, so you are going to experience fatigue and other symptoms too.

When to See a Doctor
You should talk to your doctor if:
▪ You have some symptoms of hypoglycemia when you do not have diabetes.
▪ You have diabetes and your hypoglycemia symptoms do not improve with treatment.

You need emergency help if:
▪ You have diabetes, lose consciousness, or have a history of hypoglycemia symptoms.
Treatments for Hyperglycemia and Hypoglycemia

Knowledge about the basic symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia helps you seek treatment in a timely manner.


Here are some of the most common

treatment options for both the conditions:

1. Treatments for Hyperglycemia +
You can try some home remedies to keep things under control but severe hyperglycemia requires emergency help.
Home Treatment
▪ Have an active lifestyle and exercise regularly to control blood sugar. Do not exercise in case you have ketones in your urine.
▪ Take all your medications as prescribed by your doctor.
▪ Always follow a strict eating plan to control your diabetes. Avoid sugary beverages and eat less to get good results.
▪ Monitor your blood sugar levels and check frequently to deal with hyperglycemia.
▪ Work with your doctor to adjust your insulin dose to control your symptoms.

Emergency Treatment
You may need emergency treatment in case you experience any symptoms of HHNS or diabetic ketoacidosis.

Blood sugar higher than 600 mg/dL
Severe thirst
Dry mouth
Excessive urination
Pain in the abdomen
Vomiting and nausea
Rapid breathing
Fruity breath

Diabetic Ketoacidosis.                                         Blood sugar higher than 250 mg/dL
Thirst that may gradually disappear
Parched mouth
Dry skin
Sleep problems
Fever higher than 101 Fahrenheit
Weakness that affects one side of the body

You treatment may include the following:
▪ You will receive fluids intravenously or orally to help stay hydrated. You need fluid replacement when you have lost it through excessive urination.
▪ You may receive electrolytes to ensure your tissues keep functioning properly. A lack of insulin may require electrolyte replacement through veins.
▪ You may need insulin therapy to help reverse the process that leads to the formation of ketones in your blood.

2. Treatments for Hypoglycemia –

Early Symptoms
Pale skin
Fast heartbeat
Tingling feeling around the mouth

Advanced Symptoms                                      Seizures
Blurred vision and other visual disturbances
Loss of consciousness
Abnormal behavior or confusion
Now you know the symptoms of hyperglycemia and hypoglycemia, so when symptoms of hypoglycemia occur, be sure to monitor your blood sugar levels properly and use a blood glucose meter for quick results.

If it is too low, drink something that contains carbs or sugar.

Eating certain foods may help push your blood sugar level up quickly.

For instance, you can consume:

▪ Five pieces of hard candy

▪ About 4 oz. of fruit juice or regular soda (not diet)
▪ A tablespoon of jelly, sugar, or honey
▪ A serving of glucose gel
▪ Three glucose tablets

If you have recurring symptoms of hypoglycemia, it is a good idea to always keep one sugar item with you wherever you go. You can eat it to help improve your condition.

Be sure to check your blood sugar about 15 minutes after eating something sugary and sweet.

Eat something else if your blood sugar is still too low.

Treatment for Difficult-to-Manage Hypoglycemia
Even after adjusting medications, many people may still experience frequent and severe hypoglycemia. If that is the case, your doctor may prescribe a hormone called glucagon that helps your blood sugar levels to rise.
You can get glucagon only by prescription.

It is available in an emergency syringe kit which includes one dose that you need to mix before injecting.

Be sure to store it at room temperature only and do not use it if it has expired.

Keep in mind that if someone becomes unconscious and does not respond in 15 minutes of taking the injection, it is important to seek medical help immediately.

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